4. Coding Standards/Conventions

Banned functions and syntax

  • line numbers
    they are a relict of the deprecated goto statement and not needed

  • call flush
    use flush(6) instead of call flush(6)
    the subroutine is a vendor extension and Intel Fortran might crash when using call flush() (i.e. without file unit specified), while using flush() is recognized as a syntax error

  • print*,
    use write(6,*) instead of print*,

  • stop
    use the quit() subroutine provided by DAMASK

  • return
    is not needed immediately before end of subroutine/function

  • .lt., .le., .eq., .ne., .gt., and .ge.
    use the more readable comparison symbols <, <=, ==, !=, >, and >=

  • (/ and /)
    use the more readable [ and ]


Data declaration


  • always state implicit none before data declaration
  • use the following order when assigning attributes:
    1. type / kind
    2. dimension
    3. allocatable / pointer / target / parameter
    4. private / public (protected) intent(in/out/inout)
    5. optional


  • always state private after implicit none
  • order of data declaration
    1. constants/variables
      1. public
        1. parameter
        2. protected
      2. private
    2. functions/subroutines
      1. public
      2. private


  • functions have no intent(out) or intent(inout) dummy variables
  • when possible, add the pure statement directly before the declaration
  • return value specification:
    • scalar: use real(pReal) or integer(pInt) before the function declaration
    • array: use the first possible variable (after implicit none and possibly information needed for dimension)
  • order of data declaration
    1. intent(in)
    2. parameter
    3. local variables


  • when possible, add the pure statement directly before the declaration
  • order of data declaration
    1. intent(out)
    2. intent(inout)
    3. intent(in)
    4. parameter
    5. local variables


Naming Scheme

  • global, read-only variables (public, protected) are prefixed by the name of the module
  • parameters are written in CAPITALS
  • global, read-write variables are prefixed only if necessary
  • suffix with shape, but without underscore: C66 instead of C_66
  • i for integration point number
  • e for element number
  • g for grain number
  • h for homogenization instance
  • m for microstructure instance
  • c for constituent instance
  • o for output
  • f for slip/twin family
  • ip for integration point number
  • ipc component-ID of current integration point
  • el for element number
  • gr for grain number
  • is ipc and gr the same?
  • state
  • Tstar_v


Indentation and line format

  • no indentation for modules/programs and functions/subroutines
  • 2 spaces for each further level
  • line ends after 100 characters, hard limit by compiler is 132
  • OMP directions have no effect on indentation



  • use doxygen tags to describe functions, variables and parameters
  • structure longer functions



  • use named control structures (do, if, where, forall, select case)
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    subIncLooping: do i=1_pInt, 1000_pInt          do i=1_pInt, 1000_pInt
      a=time(i)                                      a=time(i)
    enddo subIncLooping                            enddo

  • use spread when initializing fields instead of explicit loops
    real(pReal), dimension(3,3,10) :: a
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    a=spread(math_I3,3,10)                         a=0.0_pReal 
                                                   do i=1_pInt, 10_pInt
  • use sum when calculating average fields instead of explicit loops
    real(pReal), dimension(3,3,10) :: a
    real(pReal), dimension(3,3)    :: b
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    b=sum(a,3)                                     b=0.0_pReal 
                                                   do i=1_pInt, 10_pInt
                                                     b=b + a(1:3,1:3,i)
  • use product when calculating products of array
    integer(pInt), dimension(3) :: res
    integer(pInt),              :: N
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    N=product(res)                                 N=res(1)*res(2)*res(3)
  • use no assumed size/shape, use explicit ranges
    integer(pInt), dimension(3,3,5,5) :: field
    integer(pInt), dimension(3,3)     :: tensor
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    field(1:3,1:3,1,1)=tensor                      field(:,:,1,1)=tensor
  • avoid public data, try to use accessor functions


Use statements

  • use the only statement and explicitly include functions of the module
    integer(pInt) function a(b)
    DONE                                             ALERT! 
    use IO, only: &                                    use IO
      IO_error, &



This topic: Development > CodingStandards
Topic revision: 21 Aug 2015, FranzRoters
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